Author Archives: Dr. Anand Dhingra

What is a stillbirth ?

Stillbirth – when a baby shows no signs of life – is a particularly sad and distressing time for parents and family, as they affect the shock, grief and pain of losing a baby. Often, the reason behind a stillbirth or whether it could are prevented is unknown. However, there are belongings you can do to lower the danger of having a stillbirth.

What is a stillbirth?

A stillbirth is birth of a baby who has died any time from 20 weeks into the pregnancy through to the maturity of birth. The baby can have died during the pregnancy or, less commonly, during the birth.

If the length of gestation (pregnancy) isn’t known, the birth is going to be considered a stillbirth if the baby weighs 400 grams or more.

A stillbirth is other than a miscarriage, which occurs when a pregnancy ends before 20 weeks of pregnancy.

What can cause a stillbirth?

sadly, it’s often not known what causes a stillbirth. a number of the causes include:

 congenital anomalies, which are conditions that affect the baby’s structure (how its body is built) or function (how its body works) while it’s developing within the womb

 a premature birth, where the baby is just too immature to survive

 baby growth restriction, where the baby doesn’t grow to full potential

 a medical condition of the mother, like diabetes, renal disease, heart condition or pre-eclampsia

 complications during birth

 problems with the duct or placenta

There are some things that will increase a woman’s risk of getting a stillbirth. These include:

 being obese before pregnancy

 infection

 sleeping on your back during pregnancy

 smoking, drinking alcohol or shooting up during pregnancy

 trauma to the mother’s abdomen (the tummy area)

 family violence during pregnancy

Can I do anything to prevent a stillbirth?

Even though an explanation for stillbirth is usually never known, there are many belongings you can do this may lower the danger of having one.

Staying healthy and taking folic acid before you become pregnant, also as avoiding smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking drugs are all important.

It is also important that you simply attend all of your antenatal appointments and screenings for any potential health issues also as having an ultrasound in early pregnancy, which can detect problems.

If you’ve got high blood pressure or diabetes, you ought to attempt to ensure these are well controlled before and through your pregnancy.

You should monitor your baby’s movements, especially within the third trimester. If you think that your baby’s movements have changed, speak to your doctor or midwife immediately.

You sleep on your side as your pregnancy progresses, especially from 28 weeks. Lying on your back puts pressure on major and important blood vessels. this will reduce the flow of blood to your womb, and restrict your baby’s oxygen supply. Research has shown that sleeping on your side can reduce the danger of stillbirth by half.

It is also important that you simply take your birth team’s advice on inducing or having a cesarean if your pregnancy goes past the due date.

Possible warning signs

Contact your doctor immediately if:

 you think your baby has stopped moving or is moving differently or but usual

 you have strong pain or cramping in your abdomen or back

 you receive a hard blow to your abdomen

 you are bleeding, leaking more discharge than normal from your vagina

 your feeling dizzy, experience changes to your vision, or have severe or long-lasting headaches

 your face, feet, or hands suddenly swell otherwise you have painful swelling in your legs

 you have severe nausea and vomiting that affects your eating or drinking

 you have a fever or chills

 you sense that something doesn’t feel right

How is stillbirth diagnosed?

An obstetrician or midwife will allow you to know if your baby isn’t showing any signs of life and can support you while they provide you this news.

You will get to give birth to your baby and this, alongside the news that the baby has died, is a particularly traumatic time for parents. you’ll be ready to go home for a day or 2 before returning to the hospital to offer birth to your baby.

It’s normal to feel a variety of emotions, from shock and disbelief to deep sadness and grief.

How is that the baby usually delivered?

Your midwife or obstetrician will ask you the simplest way for you to give birth. In most cases, they’re going to suggest inducing childbirth instead of a cesarean.

There are reasons why your doctor will usually recommend this.

 You can spend precious time together with your baby once they’re born.

 You can rise up and move around before you’d with a cesarean.

 You are at less risk of infection.

 You will have longer to process what went on , since it’s going to take each day or 2 after you’re induced for the birth to start.

The vaginal birth of a stillborn baby can take longer than with a live baby. you’ll be ready to have pain relief also because of the full support of your care team. Your feelings are important also as your decisions about stillbirth.

9 Potential Reasons You’re Having Fertility Issues

9 Potential Reasons You’re Having Fertility Issues

Your cycle and ovulation might be irregular.

Getting pregnant relies heavily on having a daily menstrual cycle, about every 21 to 35 days. During the ovulation portion of your monthly cycle, the ovary releases an egg that will potentially be fertilized. But the window is brief for fertilization, and you’ve got to actually ovulate to be ready to get pregnant. “Egg will survive up to 24 hrs before the ‘conception window’ closes until the next cycle,”.

There are a couple of underlying reasons for your cycle, and therefore your ovulation could be irregular. they might be out of your control, like thyroid issues, PCOS, stress, or being overweight or underweight. you might be ready to get your ovulation back on target with a healthy diet filled with fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and healthy fats (think salmon and avocado), also as exercising regularly and curtailing on drinking both alcohol and excess caffeine.

Your age might be a factor.

This probably isn’t news to anyone, but the younger you’re, the better it’s to get pregnant. “While there isn’t a consistent age where all ladies will begin to experience fertility issues, egg supply and quality tend to say no more rapidly after age 35,”

You can’t really do anything to change how old you’re when the time is true for you to possess a baby. the only thing you’ll do is reconsider exactly how you get pregnant if you’re having trouble doing so at your age, and you have been trying for a few years already.

You’re not at a healthy weight.

Being either overweight can affect your ability to conceive because it can change your ovulation patterns. PCOS (more on that later) is usually related to obesity because it affects the body’s ability to regulate insulin. It also contributes to irregular ovulation. Low body weight can cause irregularity in your menstrual cycles too.

Your partner’s infertility might be hurting your chances.

Men can suffer from fertility due to hormonal or genetic reasons, or environmental factors, It might be anything from a drag within the pituitary signaling hormones within the testes, a blockage within the testes, or exposure to toxins and chemicals, like BPA (in plastic), alcohol, or drugs, that’s causing difficulty for your partner.

The easiest way to get to the bottom of the difficulty is to have your partner’s doctor perform a semen analysis to study everything from sperm count to shape to the motility of the swimmers.

Lifestyle-wise, experts recommend a diet and exercise, quitting smoking and vaping, and taking a daily multivitamin for men.

Endometriosis can contribute to fertility problems.

Endometriosis—a condition during which the endometrial tissue, which should be growing inside the uterus, grows outside of it on places just like the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and elsewhere within the pelvis cavity—is not only incredibly painful, but it may hurt chances of getting pregnant. “This causes infection and pain when the tissue breaks down monthly but can’t be drained from the body, and over time can cause scar tissue and adhesions that impact fertility, like tubal blockage.

You could have a blocked fallopian tube.

A blocked Fallopian tube might be a result of endometriosis, or other scar tissue or adhesions, says in case, the egg can’t make its way down into the uterus to be fertilized. Typically, laparoscopic surgery takes care of the blockage.
Sometimes, doctors will do a test called a hysterosalpingogram, This test injects a dye up through your cervix and out the fallopian tubes, to see if your tubes are blocked or open.

You may have PCOS.

There’s a chance you’ll have an endocrine disorder called polycystic ovary syndrome, or PCOS. In fact, about one in ten women do have it, and it tends to affect normal ovulation. “In ladies
with PCOS, the hormones needed for an egg to completely mature aren’t present, preventing ovulation from occurring and causing cysts to make on the ovaries,

You may notice symptoms like abnormal hair growth, acne, being overweight, depression, and high blood pressure, among others, which will signify PCOS. Like endometriosis, it’s going to not prevent you from getting pregnant, but PCOS likely will affect ovulation. If you’ve got PCOS, talk to your gynecologist about aged medication to enhance ovulation and potentially using other treatments.

You have an underlying medical condition.

You might have other health problems that are making it difficult to get pregnant. may impact fertility by interrupting menstrual cycles and ovulation, A past STI diagnosis, like gonorrhea or chlamydia, could end in pelvic disease, another potential explanation for blocked fallopian tubes, she adds.

Different prescription medications, like those for anxiety and depression, could even have an impact on fertility because they are doing affect your hormones—but talk together with your gynecologist before stopping taking any prescription drugs.

You’ll have uterine fibroids.

Another painful cause of infertility issues is uterine fibroids. If they’re within the cavity, they will prevent a fertilized egg from implanting on the uterine wall.

If you’ve got uterine fibroids, your doctor may do a hysterosalpingogram test also as an ultrasound to see if they might affect fertilization and implantation. they will even be surgically removed.

There are many ways you can boost your fertility.

Eat a balanced diet

Your weight should be healthy so as to urge pregnant, and diet may be a huge contributor thereto. Doctors an entire foods-based diet, with many veggies and fruits, whole grains, lean protein, and healthy fats. now’s the time to kick bad habits to the curb, too, like eating sweets and processed foods in excess. And your drinking habits make a difference: attempt to crop on caffeine and limit your alcohol intake to no more than two drinks every week. Avoid smoking also.

Exercise regularly and work on stress release
To stay stress levels low and chances of getting pregnant higher, practice whatever self-care you would like to stay yourself centered, whether that’s meditation, yoga, or some combination of the two, alongside regular exercise. gynecologist warns against suddenly exercising quite you’re wont to if you’re already at a healthy BMI though, which may contribute to irregular periods and weight loss in some cases.

Do an at-home ovulation test regularly.

An anovulation predictor test is usually accurate and straightforward to use. These tests can assist you to schedule sex around your ovulation,

Use sperm-friendly lube.

With all that trying, you’ll need some assistance with lubrication. Because many lubricants are spermicidal, Doctors recommend a sperm-friendly lube called Pre-Seed.

Take fertility-boosting supplements together with your partner

It’s key for ladies to start out taking prenatal vitamins that contain folic acid to stop birth defects, but vitamin Bc also can be helpful for sperm health, doctors say additionally thereto, she recommends 200 milligrams daily of the enzyme CoQ10 and 1,000 milligrams of fish oil for men to boost sperm quality. animal oil is additionally an honest idea for ladies to require, too, to form sure they need enough fatty acids in their diet.

Swollen Ankles and Feet

Swollen Ankles and Feet

Edema ankles and swollen feet are common and usually not cause for concern, particularly if you’ve got been standing or walking a lot. But feet and ankles that stay swollen or are accompanied by other symptoms could signal a significant health problem.

Pregnancy complications

Sometimes swelling of the ankles and feet is normal during pregnancy. Sudden or excessive swelling, however, could also be a symbol of preeclampsia, a significant condition during which high blood pressure and protein within the urine develop after the 20th week of pregnancy. If you experience severe swelling or swelling accompanied by other symptoms like abdominal pain, headaches, infrequent urination, nausea, and vomiting, or vision changes, call your doctor immediately. Learn more about managing a high-risk pregnancy.

Foot or ankle injury

An injury to the foot or ankle can cause swelling. the foremost common maybe a sprained ankle, which occurs when an injury or misstep causes the ligaments that hold the ankle in place to be stretched beyond their normal range. to reduce the Edema from a foot or ankle injury, rest to avoid walking on the injured ankle or foot, use ice packs, wrap the foot or ankle with a crepe bandage, and elevate the foot on a stool or pillow. If swelling and pain is severe or doesn’t improve with home treatment, see your physician. Learn more about the way to treat a sprained ankle.


This is often a collection of lymphatic fluid within the tissues which will develop due to the absence of or problems with the lymph vessels or after the removal of lymph nodes. Lymph may be a protein-rich fluid that normally travels alongside an extensive network of vessels and capillaries. it’s filtered through the lymph nodes, which trap and destroy unwanted substances, like bacteria. When there’s a problem with the vessels or lymph nodes, however, the fluid’s movement is often blocked. Untreated, lymph buildup can impair wound healing and cause infection and deformity. Lymphedema is common following radiation therapy in patients with cancer. If you’ve got undergone cancer treatment and knowledge swelling, see your doctor directly. See a photograph of what lymphedema seems like.

Venous insufficiency

Swelling of the ankles and feet is usually an early symptom of venous insufficiency, a condition during which blood inadequately moves up the veins from the legs and feet up to the heart. Normally, the vein’s blood flowing upward with one-way valves. When these valves become damaged or weakened, the blood leaks back down the vessels, and fluid is retained within the soft tissue of the lower legs, especially the ankles and feet. Chronic venous insufficiency can cause skin changes, skin ulcers, and infection. If you feel signs of venous insufficiency you ought to see your doctor. determine more about chronic venous insufficiency.


Swelling within the feet and ankles are often a sign of infection. Women with diabetic neuropathy or other nerve problems of the feet are at greater risk for foot infections. If you’ve got diabetes, it’s important to examine your feet daily for blisters and sores, because nerve damage can blunt the pain sensation and foot problems can progress quickly. If you notice a swollen foot or blister that appears to be infected, contact your doctor directly. Learn more about the way to look after feet with diabetes.

Blood clot

Blood clots that form within the veins of the legs can stop the return flow of blood from the legs back up to the heart and cause swelling within the ankles and feet. Blood clots are often either superficial (occurring within the veins just beneath the skin), or deep (a condition referred to as deep vein thrombosis). Deep clots can block one or more of the main veins of the legs. These blood clots are often life-threatening if they break loose and travel to the heart and lungs. If you’ve got swelling in one leg, alongside pain, low-grade fever, and possibly a change in color of the affected leg, call your doctor immediately. Treatment with blood thinners could also be necessary. Learn more about deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

Heart, liver, or kidney disease

Sometimes swelling can indicate a problem like heart, liver, or renal disorder. Ankles that swell within the evening might be a symbol of retaining salt and water due to right-sided coronary failure. kidney disease also can cause foot and ankle swelling. When kidneys aren’t functioning properly, fluid can build up within the body. liver disease can affect the liver’s production of a protein called albumin, which keeps the blood from leaking out of the blood vessels into the encompassing tissues. Inadequate albumin production can cause fluid leakage. Gravity causes fluid to accumulate more within the feet and ankles, but fluid also can accumulate within the abdomen and chest. If your swelling is amid other symptoms, including fatigue, loss of appetite, and weight gain, see your doctor directly. If you are feeling in need of breath or have pain, pressure, or tightness, call 911. Learn more about the renal disorder and its symptoms.

Medication side effects

Many drugs can cause swelling within the feet and ankles as a possible side effect. They include:

 Hormones like estrogen (found in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy) and testosterone

 Calcium channel blockers, a kind of blood pressure medication, which includes nifedipine (Adalat, Afeditab, Nifediac, Nifedical, Procardia), amlodipine (Norvasc), diltiazem (Cardizem, Cartia, Dilacor, Diltia, Tiazac), felodipine (Plendil), and verapamil (Calan, Covera-HS, Isoptin, Isoptin SR, Verelan)

 Steroids, including androgenic and anabolic steroids and corticosteroids like prednisone

 Antidepressants, including tricyclics, like nortriptyline (Pamelor, Aventyl), desipramine (Norpramin), and amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep, Vanatrip); and monoamine oxidases (MAO) inhibitors like phenelzine (Nardil) and tranylcypromine (Parnate)

 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

 Diabetes medications.

Common Discomforts of Pregnancy

Common Discomforts of Pregnancy

What you would like to understand, what no one tells you before you get pregnant, is “Pregnancy is amazing, except when it’s not!” There are many strange things that happen to you during this miraculous time- come on, you’re growing a person’s being inside you for goodness sake-especially because your hormones are everywhere in the place. These hormonal changes can cause different [and often annoying] pregnancy symptoms all throughout your body. Here are the foremost common discomforts of pregnancy and the way you’ll navigate through them:

Morning Sickness

More than 60% of women will experience morning (and all day and night) sickness. the feeling of wanting to present (nausea) isn’t uncommon. Each woman is different; some will only feel the urge to vomit, and a few will actually vomit. Remarkably, the research scroller still cannot reliably pinpoint what actually causes morning sickness.

Most women will experience this charmer for less than the first trimester, while others will have the sensation they’re riding a 5-star rollercoaster throughout their entire pregnancy. the great news is that some research shows that ladies who experience morning sickness have children with higher IQs…feeling better about it already?

Lack of Energy/Lethargy / Fatigue

Another common symptom of pregnancy is how tired you are feeling, especially during your first and third trimesters (the second trimester is typically the “honeymoon” so enjoy it!). quite half of the pregnant mamas experience this symptom. most girls desire to find a hiding spot to curl up and take a nap.

Let’s not forget, your body is producing new hormones and making a lot of changes to organize for human creation, it takes a lot of work! You’re also producing more blood to hold nutrients to the baby causing increased effort for your heart and other organs. Mental and emotional stress also are reasons you’ll be feeling exhausted.

You may have difficulty sleeping later in your pregnancy thanks to multiple bathroom trips, leg cramps, and heartburn.

Fatigue is often a symbol of anemia, particularly from being iron-deficient. Your body needs iron to form hemoglobin, the substance in red blood cells that enables them to hold oxygen to your tissues and to your baby. consistent with the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), your need for iron doubles to 27 mg during pregnancy thanks to the requirements of the baby, the extra blood produced by your body, and therefore the blood loss which will occur during delivery. Most prenatal vitamins contain enough iron to support this increased requirement (with the exception of gummies). to urge enough through food, eat iron-rich foods like red meat, poultry, fish (2-3 servings per week max), dried beans, peas, iron-fortified cereals, and prune juice.


The only heartburn you should feel is from the Extended Triangle Pose position during prenatal yoga! It can help relieve indigestion by the way.

Heartburn during pregnancy may be a doozy with quite 50% of girls experiencing this symptom, especially during the second and third trimesters. it’s not usually a sign of a significant problem, but it is often quite uncomfortable and even painful. esophageal reflux is usually called “acid reflux” or “heartburn.”

Indigestion is additionally common during pregnancy and may occur with heartburn. Also referred to as “dyspepsia,” indigestion is simply another name for indigestion. If you are feeling full, gassy, or bloated, you’ve got indigestion!

Heartburn occurs when gastric juices from your stomach are pushed up toward your esophagus (the pipe between your mouth and your stomach). This causes a burning sensation behind your breastbone or one that starts in your stomach and seems to get up. you’ll even have a sour taste in your mouth or a feeling that vomit is rising in your throat (as we said, pregnancy is amazing, except when it’s not!). It’s important to treat heartburn, as repeatedly it’ll cause you to not eat properly thanks to the pain, and if you’re not eating, your baby isn’t getting the right nutrition.


Don’t worry, you’re not alone- over 70% of ladies experience this discomfort at some point or another during their pregnancy. There are a couple of different things that cause constipation during pregnancy:

Thanks to your hormonal “free-for-all,” your digestive tract slows down (relaxes) to assist you to absorb all the vitamins and minerals that your new houseguest requires.

The uterus puts pressure on the intestines around it, causing further delays.

The increased iron found in your prenatal vitamins might be causing a serious backup too! ask your healthcare provider about other options (such as taking smaller doses throughout the day).

Bleeding Gums & Tooth Pain

Issues with oral health during pregnancy are overshadowed by a number of the more obvious symptoms, The symptoms included bleeding gums, toothache, and increased tooth sensitivity.

Only 57% of the ladies actually visited a dentist during their pregnancy. It’s important to go to your dentist during pregnancy because any infection within the oral cavity can have a negative effect on the health of your baby.

The most common oral discomfort pregnant women encountered was bleeding gums. this is often primarily thanks to the hormonal changes during pregnancy which make the gums sensitive to the presence of plaque. Bleeding gums, if left untreated, can cause periodontal disease (gingivitis). Many studies state that periodontal disease is often a possible risk for low birth weight babies. Bleeding gums also can cause a gingival recession which may cause sensitivity to hot and cold temperatures and make teeth more vulnerable to decay at the gum line. Your dentist can offer you suggestions on treatment and gentle tooth care.

Headaches and Migraines

Headaches during pregnancy are often a result of hormonal changes, tension, congestion, constipation, lack of sleep, dehydration, low blood pressure, low blood glucose, and even caffeine withdrawal. In some cases, it’s caused by preeclampsia. . Preeclampsia (also called Toxemia) A strong headache within the second or third trimester could also be a symbol of preeclampsia or high vital sign during pregnancy. Preeclampsia is an uncommon condition affecting about five to ten percent of pregnancies. Headaches that are a result of preeclampsia are consistent, persistent, and throbbing. Mamas with preeclampsia can also have complaints of blurry vision or seeing spots, weight gain (more than one pound per day), pain within the upper right abdomen, and hands and face getting swollen. If you get a headache that’s out of the norm or you’re experiencing any of those symptoms, you ought to call your doctor or midwife directly.

Folic acid and pregnancy

Folic acid and pregnancy

Folic acid (also known as folate) may be a B-vitamin found in many foods, including dark green leafy vegetables, fruits, nuts, beans, peas, dairy products, meat, eggs, and grains. it’s required for the production of the latest cells and for the correct synthesis of DNA. This vitamin is especially important to a baby’s health and development. Because there might not be enough folic acid within the diet, it’s recommended that each one woman who tries to urge pregnant, or who might become pregnant, take supplemental folic acid. To be useful, the folic acid must be taken for a minimum of three months before conception. it’s not helpful to start it after the diagnosis of pregnancy.

Why is folic acid so important in pregnancy?

Folic acid helps prevent some types of birth defects called ectoderm defects. These happen when the fetal spinal column doesn’t close completely or the brain and skull don’t grow properly. Some samples of neural tube defects are rachischisis and anencephaly. Other defects including birth defects, some heart defects can also be associated with inadequate folic acid intake.

How much folic acid should I be taking?

It is not only the quantity of folic acid that you simply take that’s important but the timing. Most ectoderm defects happen within the first 4 weeks of pregnancy, often before the mother is even aware she is pregnant. for many women, a daily dose of 0.4 mg of folic acid per day throughout pregnancy and until breastfeeding ends is enough. If you’ve got risk factors for neural tube defects or have had a previous pregnancy with a neural tube defect, you’ll get to take more. additionally to eating a diet rich in folic acid, follow the recommendations during this table.

What are the best folic acid foods?

Your daily prenatal vitamin is sort of a nutritional backup plan during pregnancy — and it comes in handy especially on days once you feel too sick to eat. That said, vitamins or supplements can’t replace a healthy diet. it is vital to eat many folate-rich foods when you’re expecting since they’re also filled with many other important baby-making nutrients like fiber, calcium, vitamin A and vitamin C.

And if you’re breastfeeding, physicians recommend taking a basic daily women’s multivitamin that contains 100 percent of the recommended daily value of all nutrients, including folic acid. you’ll either still take your prenatal vitamin or a supplement designed for breastfeeding moms.

Some of the best food sources of folate to include in your diet include:

 Leafy green vegetables: 263 mcg in 1 cup boiled spinach

 Avocado: 120 mcg in 1 cup sliced

 Beans: 250 to 350 mcg in 1 cup beans or lentils

 Asparagus: 268 mcg in 1 cup

 Beets: 136 mcg in 1 cup

 Oranges: 35 mcg in 3/4 cup

 Foods fomented with folic acid, including whole-grain cereal, bread, pasta, and rice

Keep up the great work on the nutrition front by taking your folic acid-rich daily prenatal vitamin. This supplement, alongside a healthy diet, is an excellent thanks to beginning your new baby’s life.

Reasons for a Missed Period

Reasons for a Missed Period

If your period doesn’t make its monthly appearance, your first emotion could also be elation if you’re trying to get pregnant, or anxiety if you’re not. But while pregnancy may be a common explanation for a missed period, it’s not the only one: actually, an irregular or skipped period happens to up to a quarter of all women of childbearing age.

There are a variety of reasons why your period might not show up on time — or in the least. Missed-period culprits are often as simple as a shift in your schedule or a bout with illness. However, since an irregular or skipped period also can indicate a more serious underlying medical condition, like thyroid disease or another hormonal imbalance, it’s smart to remain on top of it and, if it persists, catch on verified.

Possible causes of a late or missed period


Many times a late period means exactly what you think: You’re pregnant! Because many of the earliest pregnancy symptoms — including cramps, bloating, nausea, spotting, fatigue, breast tenderness and even food aversions — are often almost like what you’ll experience within the days before menstruation, it are often difficult to inform if your cycle is just off by a few days or if you’re pregnant.

The fastest and easiest method to find out if pregnancy is that the cause of your missed period is to require an at-home pregnancy test. These tests detect human chorionic gonadotropin (better known as hCG, a hormone released during pregnancy) in your urine. Pregnancy tests are most reliable the day after your missed period, but some brands claim to be ready to detect a pregnancy up to 5 days before your period is due.


You already know that stress can trigger a number of unpleasant side effects, like headaches, weight gain, and acne, so it should come as no surprise that it also can affect your cycle. When under physical or emotional stress, your body produces the hormones adrenaline and cortisol. Elevated levels of those stress hormones force the brain to decide which bodily functions are essential and which are nonessential until the anxiety-inducing event is over.

Stress won’t typically cause problems together with your cycle, but occasionally too much stress can cause fluctuations in hormone levels, which could in turn mess together with your body’s timing of ovulation and delay your period.


Certain illnesses, like a cold or the flu, also can stress the body and impact ovulation, and, as a result, your period. If illness around the time of ovulation caused you to skip a period, it’ll likely reappear as normal next cycle.


Your weight can affect your hypothalamus, a gland within the brain responsible for regulating various processes within the body — including your cycle.

Extreme weight loss, low caloric intake, or being very underweight can stress the hypothalamus. this might inhibit your body from producing the estrogen needed to create the lining of the uterus.

On the opposite hand, being overweight or gaining a lot of weight during a short amount of your time can cause your body to supply an excessive amount of estrogen. An overload may end in a few months without ovulation or cause the endometrial lining to overgrow and become unstable, leading to heavy, irregular, or missed periods.

Usually, consulting your physician or gynecologist and gaining a healthy amount of weight if you’re underweight or losing if you’re overweight should help your periods to return to normal.

Excessive exercise

Of course, understanding is good for you. However, once you overdo it (and possibly also restrict meals to lose weight), your body might not produce enough estrogen to finish the menstrual cycle.

Some women — like ballet dancers, gymnasts, and professional athletes — are at greater risk for amenorrhea (missing a period for 3 or more months during a row). But you do not have to be a pro for exercise to mess together with your system. working out excessively without taking in enough calories also can cause disruptions.

Some signs that you’re overdoing it include: extreme or rapid weight loss, decreased physical performance or forcing yourself to figure out through injury, illness, or severe weather. Slowing down a touch and gaining a touch weight if needed should get things back on target.

Change in schedule

Believe it or not, switching things up — as an example, working the night shift rather than the day, or traveling across the country — can throw off your internal body clock, which helps regulate your hormones. Sometimes this leads to a missed or late period, but it should return when your body gets won’t to the change or your schedule goes back to normal.


If you’re breastfeeding, you’ll not get your period a few time, since prolactin — the hormone liable for breast milk production — also suppresses ovulation.

Many moms do not have a period for months (or at all) while breastfeeding. But a lapse in your cycle doesn’t suggest you cannot get pregnant. Remember, ovulation occurs before you get your period. It’s possible for you to ovulate then get pregnant before you ever see your period. Most mothers should see their periods return within six to eight weeks after weaning. If you haven’t gotten your period three months after you stop breastfeeding, ask your doctor.


Probably the foremost common medication to cause menstrual changes is contraception. Hormonal contraceptives like the pill or patchwork by stopping the body from ovulating — and no ovulation means no period. But what that monthly bleeding you’ve got while using one among these methods? What you’re really experiencing is withdrawal bleeding, a “fake” period caused by the drop by hormones once you take the placebo pills in your pack or go patch-free during the fourth week of your cycle.

Sometimes, though, contraception suppresses hormones such a lot that you simply have Very light bleeding or no period in the least during that week off. and a few pills are even designed to prevent your period for an extended amount of your time (three months or more). Other hormonal birth controls, like the Depo-Provera, shot or the IUD, thin the liner of the uterus to such a degree that there could also be no lining to shed monthly.

Emergency contraception also can affect when or if you ovulate, so if you’ve taken it recently you’ll experience a late or skipped period (bring this up together with your doctor).

Some other medications which will cause your period to be irregular include antidepressants, some antipsychotics, corticosteroids, and chemotherapy drugs.

If you’ve recently gone off the pill within the hopes of getting pregnant, you’ll notice that it takes a month or so for your cycle to manage itself — during which case a skipped period might just be your system getting back on target. If you are not sure whether you might be pregnant, however, visit your doctor.

Hormonal imbalance

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may be a condition where the female sex hormones are out of balance. PCOS can cause cysts on the ovaries and stop ovulation from occurring regularly. additionally, to missed or irregular periods, PCOS also can contribute to excess hair growth, acne, weight gain, and possibly infertility. Your doctor can do a blood test to see your hormone levels if you think that PCOS could also be the rationale for your menstruation problems. If PCOS is that the cause, your doctor may recommend contraception to regulate your periods.

Thyroid disorder

The thyroid gland responsible for your body’s metabolism doesn’t function properly, it can cause abnormal menstrual changes. Hyperthyroidism can cause periods to be lighter and less frequent. Other symptoms include weight loss, rapid heartbeat, increased sweating, and trouble sleeping.

An underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) can also cause periods to be less frequent but heavier. Hypothyroidism also can cause weight gain, fatigue, dry skin, and hair loss. A blood test can help your doctor determine if you’ve got a thyroid disorder.


The average age of menopause is 51. Anywhere from two to eight years before that, a lady experiences what’s referred to as perimenopause, a period when the body gradually produces less estrogen. During this point, it isn’t uncommon to experiences changes in your cycle — periods may come more or less frequently, be shorter or longer, or be lighter or heavier. But you’ll also likely experience hot flashes and night sweats, sleeping difficulties, vaginal dryness, and mood swings. If you’re concerned about your symptoms, you can check your hormone levels with a blood test.

Though a missed period is often emotional, try to not jump to conclusions until you discover out what’s really happening. A visit to your doctor can help pinpoint the cause, and if you are not pregnant, coax your next period along and obtain things back to normal.

Fetal Distress in Labor

Fetal Distress in Labor

A baby who is compromised in labor is in distress. The medical term for fetal stress is that the nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS), which describes a baby’s health late within the pregnancy or during labor.
Reasons for fetal distress are varied from cord issues to fetal anomalies, reactions to medications or the strain of labor, and other complications of labor.


While you’ll not experience physical symptoms, signs of fetal distress may include:

 Less movement from the fetus

 Abnormal fetal pulse (too slow, too fast, or irregular)

 Meconium, fetal stool, within the amnionic fluid


NRFS will be an indicator of various obstetric, maternal, or fetal conditions, including:1

 Anemia, or an iron deficiency

 Diabetes

 Infection

 IUGR ( Intrauterine growth retardation ) previously referred to as intrauterine growth retardation, refers to a size deficiency in your baby

 Maternal cardiovascular disease

 Oligohydramnios, or low amnionic fluid

 Placenta abruption

 Pregnancy-induced hypertension, or high vital sign during pregnancy

 Pregnancies that have progressed past 42 weeks


You’ll likely have the following tests to diagnose the distress:

 Biophysical profile, which is an ultrasound test that checks your baby’s pulse, muscle tone, movement, breathing, and therefore the amount of amnionic fluid around your baby.

 Nonstress test, which monitors accelerations and de-accelerations of the baby’s pulse, also as any contractions you’ll be having.

 A contraction stress test, during which you’re given a little amount of Pitocin via IV and monitored to see how your baby responds to contractions via the electronic fetal monitor

Monitoring fetal distress

When you are parturient, your baby could also be monitored all of the time (continuous monitoring) or at set times (intermittent). Monitoring also can be done externally (outside of the body) or internally (inside of the body), or both. generally, if you’re low risk, you will probably experience external, intermittent monitoring.

Methods of Monitoring

The type of monitoring used will depend upon your risk of complications, how your labor goes, and therefore the overall policy of your ob-gyn or hospital.

The common methods of monitoring your baby include:

 Fetal auscultation, away used on low-risk mothers where a special stethoscope or device called a Doppler transducer is used to periodically hear the fetal heartbeat.

 Fetal monitoring, a way that uses special equipment to live the response of the fetus’s pulse to contractions of the uterus.

During Labor

Monitoring during labor can help your care team recognize and/or monitor the following:

 Hypoxia, when the fetus doesn’t receive adequate oxygen

 Contractions

 High-risk deliveries

 Cerebral palsy

 Impending fetal death

The electronic fetal monitor uses two straps that go around your abdomen. One measures the baby’s pulse, and therefore the other measures your contractions or uterine activity.

Using the graphs of the guts rate, your doctors or midwives are looking to see if the heart rate stays within certain parameters.

 Too high may indicate that your baby features a fever or is in distress.

 Too low may mean that there’s oxygen deprivation thanks to a variety of reasons, including the baby’s position or the cord becoming compressed.

The monitors are going to be used to tell when your baby is experiencing distress, in relation to each contraction. For example:

 Throughout the contraction

 Recovering within the break periods

 Only at the end of the contraction

 Both during and after contractions

Each timing may mean something slightly different and should involve a variety of attempts to fix the difficulty.

While FHR monitoring has many benefits, a misinterpretation of the FHR monitoring results can increase the likelihood of getting an LSCS

How Diarrhea Happens During Pregnancy

How Diarrhea Happens During Pregnancy

Stomach and digestive issues are common during pregnancy. you’ll hear plenty about nausea and constipation, but less about diarrhea. Although it’s going to not get as much attention, diarrhea is another gastrointestinal issue that pregnant women can face.

Some women consider diarrhea an early sign of pregnancy. It’s true that hormone changes around the time of conception can cause stomach issues and even cause diarrhea. However, breast tenderness and pain, fatigue, and nausea are much more common symptoms of early pregnancy.

Diarrhea during late pregnancy could also be a sign that delivery is getting closer. Some women report diarrhea, heartburn, or nausea and vomiting right before they are going into labor. Of course, women get diarrhea for several reasons, and it can develop at any time during pregnancy-not just at the start or the end.


Diarrhea during pregnancy may result from conditions as diverse as hormones to changes in your diet to a stomach virus. you would possibly experience diarrhea due to:

Body changes:

In pregnancy, you’ll experience changes in your hormones and your body. These can affect your stomach and alimentary canal, resulting in nausea and vomiting, constipation, or diarrhea.


Pregnancy might inspire you to eat healthier. Sometimes a sudden change to more nutritious, fiber-rich foods can cause a change in bowel movements, too. Give your body a touch time to adjust if you go from burgers and fries to fruits and salads all directly.

Prenatal vitamins:

There are many various brands of prenatal vitamins. Some are more likely to cause constipation, and a few can cause looser stools. If you think that you’re having diarrhea due to your vitamin, ask your doctor and invite a recommendation for an additional brand.

Diarrhea also can develop from something that has nothing to try to do with pregnancy, such as:

 Food poisoning

 Health issues like Celiac disease, or hyperthyroidism

 Illness from an epidemic or bacteria

 Taking medication like antibiotics

 Travel


Diarrhea is when you have bowel movements more often and looser in consistency than you’d normally have. Here’s what to look for:

 Bloating

 Cramping

 Stomach pain

 The feeling of getting to run to the bathroom

 Two or more watery or loose bowel movements during a day (24 hours)


While you’re pregnant, you’ll experience nausea or heartburn. Like these, diarrhea is another uncomfortable inconvenience you’ll need to get through. These treatments may help.

Hydrate Your Body

It is important to stay hydrated, especially when you’re pregnant. Diarrhea removes water from your body, so drink many fluids, especially water. Since you furthermore may lose electrolytes through diarrhea, other liquids, like chicken or vegetable broth and electrolyte replacement solutions, are helpful. Avoid dairy, sugary drinks, coffee, tea, and energy drinks, since they will make diarrhea worse.

Watch Your Diet

Eating foods that are easy to digest and don’t irritate or stimulate the stomach and digestive tract. A diet like (Bananas, Rice, Applesauce, Toast) plus the nutrients in other easy-to-digest foods (potatoes, chicken and vegetable soup, lean meats) can help until diarrhea has passed. stay away from fried, spicy, and high-fat foods.

Give It Time

Diarrhea often clears up on its own. If you’ve got mild diarrhea with no other symptoms (fever, pain, cramping), you’ll wait a couple of days to ascertain if goes away. Diarrhea that results from a stomach bug or food issue will often getaway on its own.

Keep It Clean

Loose stools can make it easier for the bacteria within the colon to visit the urinary tract and cause an infection (UTI). Cleanliness can prevent the spread of germs to other parts of your body and people. After using the toilet, always wipe from front to back and alter the paper before wiping again. you’ll also want to stay your undergarments clean and wash your hands frequently.

Avoid anti-diarrhea medication

Stay away from OTC medications to treat diarrhea. Not all over-the-counter medications are safe for pregnant ladies. If it’s necessary, your doctor will recommend or prescribe medication for you supported the severity of your symptoms.

Is It Dangerous?

Diarrhea is often mild and passes quickly, or it is often more serious. The loss of water through your bowels can cause dehydration, which may be especially harmful during pregnancy. So to prevent diarrhea from becoming dangerous, make certain to drink many water and other fluids.

Be aware of the symptoms of dehydration:

 Dry mouth

 Feeling lightheaded, dizzy, or as if you’ll faint

 Headache

 Urinating less often

 Urine that features a strong smell

 Urine that’s very dark yellow or orange

Effects of X-Rays during Pregnancy

Effects of X-Rays during Pregnancy

Pregnancy may be a time to take excellent care of yourself and your unborn child. Many things are especially important during pregnancy, like eating right, cutting out cigarettes and alcohol, and being careful about the prescription and over-the-counter drugs you’re taking. Diagnostic x-rays and other medical radiation procedures of the abdominal area also deserve extra attention during pregnancy. This brochure is to help you understand the problems concerning x-ray exposure during pregnancy.

Diagnostic x-rays can give the doctor important and even life-saving information about a few person’s medical conditions. But like many things, diagnostic x-rays have risks also as benefits. they ought to be used only they’re going to give the doctor information needed to treat you.

You’ll probably never need an abdominal x-ray during pregnancy. But sometimes, due to a specific medical condition, your physician may feel that a diagnostic x-ray of your abdomen or lower torso is required. If this could happen – do not be upset. the risk to you and your unborn child is extremely small, and therefore the advantage of checking out about your medical condition is way greater. In fact, the danger of not having a needed x-ray might be much greater than the risk from the radiation. But even small risks shouldn’t be taken if they’re unnecessary.

You can reduce those risks by telling your doctor if you’re, or think you would possibly be, pregnant whenever an abdominal x-ray is prescribed. If you’re pregnant, the doctor may decide that it might be best to cancel the x-ray examination, to postpone it, or switch it to scale back the quantity of radiation. Or, counting on your medical needs, and realizing that the risk is extremely small, the doctor may feel that it’s best to proceed with the x-ray as planned. In any case, you ought to be happy to discuss the choice together with your doctor.

What kind of X-Rays Can Affect the Unborn Child?

During most x-ray examinations – like those of the arms, legs, head, teeth, or chest – your reproductive organs aren’t exposed to the direct x-ray beam. So these sorts of procedures, when properly done, don’t involve any risk to the unborn child. However, x-rays of the mother’s lower torso – abdomen, stomach, pelvis, lower back, or kidneys – may expose the unborn child to the direct x-ray beam. they’re of more concern.

What Are the Possible Effects of X-Rays?

There is scientific disagreement about whether the small amounts of radiation utilized in diagnostic radiology can actually harm the unborn child, but it’s known that the unborn child is extremely sensitive to the consequences of things like radiation, certain drugs, excess alcohol, and infection. this is often true, in part, because the cells are rapidly dividing and growing into specialized cells and tissues. If radiation or other agents were to cause changes in these cells, there might be a rather increased chance of birth defects or certain illnesses, like leukemia, later in life.

It should be acknowledged, however, that the majority of birth defects and childhood diseases occur albeit the mother isn’t exposed to any known harmful agent during pregnancy. Scientists believe that heredity and random errors within the developmental process are liable for most of those problems.

What If I’m X-Rayed Before I do know I’m Pregnant?

Don’t be alarmed. Remember that the possibility of any harm to you and your unborn child from an x-ray is extremely small. There are, however, rare situations during which a lady who is unaware of her pregnancy may receive a really large number of abdominal x-rays over a short period. Or she may receive radiation treatment of the lower torso. Under these circumstances, the lady should discuss the possible risks together with her doctor.

How you’ll Help Minimize the Risks

Most important, tell your physician if you’re pregnant or think you would possibly be. this is important for several medical decisions, like drug prescriptions and medical procedures, also as x-rays. And remember, this is true even within the very early weeks of pregnancy.

Occasionally, a lady may mistake the symptoms of pregnancy for the symptoms of a disease. If you’ve got any of the symptoms of pregnancy – nausea, vomiting, breast tenderness, fatigue – consider whether you would possibly be pregnant and tell your doctor or x-ray technologist (the person doing the examination) before having an x-ray of the lower torso. A pregnancy test could also be involved.

If you’re pregnant or think you would possibly be, don’t hold a child who is being x-rayed. If you’re not pregnant and you’re asked to carry a toddler during an x-ray, make certain to invite a lead apron to protect your reproductive organs. this is often to stop damage to your genes that would be passed on and cause harmful effects in your future descendants.

Whenever an x-ray is requested, tell your doctor about any similar x-rays you’ve got had recently. it’s going to not be necessary to try another. it’s an honest idea to stay a record of the x-ray examinations you and your family have had taken so you’ll provide this type of data accurately.

Feel free to speak together with your doctor about the necessity for an x-ray examination. you ought to understand the rationale x-rays are requested in your particular case.

Prenatal Testing During Pregnancy

Prenatal Testing During Pregnancy

Throughout your pregnancy, you’ll likely be poked, prodded, and pressed by practitioners more than ever before. Fortunately, nearly all of those prenatal screenings and tests (like blood tests, urinalysis, and ultrasounds) are routine, pain-free, and absolutely beneficial.

Prenatal tests offer the most accurate view possible of your and your baby’s health to catch any pregnancy complications early. Some prenatal tests might be life-saving. Others provide information that will tell you more about how your baby is developing, like whether he or she may have a genetic condition. But the overwhelming majority will confirm that everything is simply fine — or are often made so with simple, standard follow-up care. Discuss early together with your doctor what tests are right for you so you’ll schedule them during the right times in your pregnancy.

Types of prenatal tests & screenings

Urine tests

You start off your pregnancy testing by peeing on a persist with an at-home pregnancy test. From there on out, you’ll continue by peeing in a cup at just about every prenatal visit. Why? Urinalysis helps your doctor or midwife check you for two potentially dangerous pregnancy complications: high blood pressure (aka preeclampsia) and gestational diabetes. Both are treatable but are often dangerous if they’re not identified — and providing a urine sample is risk-free. So drink up before each appointment!

Blood tests

At your first prenatal visit, you’ll be asked to offer up your arm for a blood sample, which can be tested for conditions that would affect your pregnancy and delivery. Your provider will check for anemia alongside your blood group, hCG levels, antibody titers, immunity to certain diseases, and rh factor (another condition that will be easily managed as long as your provider knows about it in advance). you’ll also receive screening for cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, and other genetic conditions if you weren’t screened before conception.

Pap test

Your gynecologist might do a Pap test at your first prenatal appointment to screen for abnormal cervical cells. You will also likely be screened for sexually transmitted infections including gonorrhea, syphilis, hepatitis B, HIV, and chlamydia. If you test positive for a bacterial infection, your doctor will prescribe pregnancy-safe antibiotics for you and possibly your partner — because if you give birth with an untreated infection, your baby is at risk of dangerous infections, including pneumonia.

Noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT), nuchal translucency screening (NT), and quad screen

These tests could also be offered to you sometime between weeks 10 to 15 (though NIPT is often given any time after week 9). They screen for — but don’t diagnose — chromosomal abnormalities (such as Down syndrome). NT screening is basically a specialized ultrasound. It’s often combined with NIPT and therefore the quad screen, which both use a blood sample. meaning all three poses virtually no risk to you and your baby. However, they’re not necessary or recommended for everybody. Your health care provider may suggest getting one or more if you’re 35 or over, or if you’ve got a family history of chromosomal disorders.

CVS and amniocentesis

If a NIPT, NT, or quad screen shows that your baby features an above usual risk surely congenital conditions, your health care provider might recommend a more invasive diagnostic assay like chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis (which one partly depends on how far along you’re in your pregnancy). These tests take samples of placental or amniotic material to seem at the particular genetic makeup of your baby, in order that they are more accurate in detecting chromosomal abnormalities like mongolism and, within the case of the amnio, neural tube defects. They carry a really minimal risk of miscarriage, so you’ll decide if you would like to require them. lecture a genetic counselor may assist you to make a decision.

Glucose screening

A glucose screening is suggested for virtually all moms between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy check for gestational diabetes — which affects up to an estimated 10 percent of all expecting women. You’ll drink a special sugary beverage that tastes like flat soda then have your blood glucose tested by giving a blood sample. If the test reveals that your blood glucose is above expected, you’ll take a second glucose tolerance test that involves fasting for a minimum of 8
hours before drinking another sugary liquid and having your blood tested several times over a 3-hour period to confirm the diagnosis.

Group B strep test

About 25 percent of ladies have group B strep, a kind of bacteria, within the vagina and rectum. If you do, it’s harmless to you but could cause an infection in your baby when he or she is exposed to the bacteria during childbirth. Your practitioner will offer this risk-free test toward the end of your pregnancy, which involves swabbing your vagina and rectum during a pelvic exam.

What you would like to understand about prenatal testing

While testing is often stressful, information is often powerful — especially when it comes to your or your baby’s health. The results of these tests will allow you to form better health care decisions, and in many cases get treatment to solve or manage unexpected conditions.

Ease test stress by communicating openly together with your doctor or midwife. Ask what tests and screenings they decide to conduct and when. confirm you understand which of them are routine and which of them are optional (or “opt-in”). Although most are covered by insurance, some aren’t if you’re not considered high-risk, so get that information upfront.

And don’t be afraid to ask many questions at every prenatal visit. Your practitioner has done these tests a thousand times and should accidentally forget to go over all the details. Speak up and ask what screening is for if you’re confused, how it’ll work, any risks related to it, and once you can expect results. Your relationship together with your doctor or midwife should be a partnership, so take a lively part in it.