Author Archives: Dr. Anand Dhingra

Ulcerative colitis in pregnancy

Ulcerative colitis is a refractory, chronic disease usually occurs in the rectum or entire colon. It is the most common type of IBD ( Inflammatory bowel disorder). This disease can affect self-esteem, relationships, and pregnancy. 

Effect of ulcerative colitis disease on pregnancy 

Pregnant women suffering from Ulcerative colitis have a worse outcome in pregnancy than those who are not patient of ulcerative colitis. Ulcerative colitis in pregnancy can lead to 

  1. Preterm delivery 
  2. Stillbirth 
  3. Cesarean section delivery 
  4. Congenital abnormalities.
  5. Low birth weight.
  6. Abortion 
  7. Preeclampsia 
  8. Abruptio Placentae
  9. Prolonged premature rupture of membranes 
  10. Eclampsia 

According to scientific studies it has been observed that women in remission at the time of conception and remained in remission throughout the pregnancy do not affect such as cesarean section birth, abortions, preterm delivery, and congenital abnormalities and did not affect birth weight. From this study, we can conclude that the safe time to get pregnant for women suffering from ulcerative colitis is at the time of remission.  

Most physicians advise their female patients to conceive while their disease is in remission and to continue their medications throughout the pregnancy to avoid worse pregnancy outcomes and to maintain remission. 

Effect of pregnancy on ulcerative colitis 

According to the scientific data females patients who conceive while ulcerative colitis is in remission, the ulcerative colitis tends to remain in remission throughout the pregnancy and postpartum period, and females patient who conceives while in the active state of ulcerative colitis, the disease ( UC) tends to remain in stable state in 24% of pregnant women and 45% of pregnant women have worse outcome in pregnancy but in remaining 31 % the disease goes back in remission. 

The evaluation of pregnancy in women with symptoms of active ulcerative colitis UltraSound for imaging is preferred. Magnetic resonance imaging is also safe but it will be better if one avoids the use of gadolinium in the first trimester of pregnancy. 

Herbal and natural treatment of ulcerative colitis 

  1. Alkaline Kangen water.
  2. Yoga – Yoga is the key to soothing UC. To Ulcerative colitis, Surya namaskar Asana and ANLOM VILOP Pranayama play a very active role in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. 
  3. Wheatgrass juice 
  4. Turmeric – curcumin the active ingredient of turmeric helps to fight off ulcerative colitis. 
  5. Aloe vera 
  6. Tormentil extract 
  7. Butyrate
  8. Anti-inflammatory diet 
  9. Fruits – Apple, huckleberry, bael, grapes Indian gooseberry.
  10. Green tea.
  11. Cinnamon 

Nutrition requirement in pregnancy

Nutritional counselling is the cornerstone of prenatal care for pregnant women. The nutritional status of a pregnant woman not only affect herself but also influences the health of the unborn baby. One needs to pay close attention to the nutritional value of food in the diet of pregnant women as her nutritional requirement is different from nonpregnant women and people. The nutritional requirement is influenced by race-ethnicity, age, body mass index, cultural food choice, socioeconomic status. In this article, you will learn about the maternal physiological adaptations as well as macro and micronutrient requirements of pregnant women during pregnancy. 

Energy expenditure during pregnancy 

From Garbh Sanskar the estimated calorie requirement for a pregnant lady to support the full course of pregnancy is 80,000 kcal. From this value, we can conclude that the caloric intake of pregnant women is increased by 300 kcal/day during pregnancy. The energy requirement for pregnant women first trimester is the same as for nonpregnant women. For the second trimester, the energy requirement is 340 kcal per day and for the third trimester, it is 452 kcal per day. The energy requirement may vary significantly depending upon the medical condition, BMI, age and physical activity level. 

Physiological changes during pregnancy 

Physiological changes during pregnancy alter normal ranges of several laboratory values of pregnant women. The volume of both RBC and plasma increases during pregnancy, but the rate of increase of plasma is higher than RBC, therefore, haemoglobin less than 10.5 g/dl considered anaemic during the second trimester. The total serum protein also decreases by approximately 30% compared to the value of nonpregnant women. The free levels of vitamin D, thyroid hormones, corticosteroids, and sex steroids decrease in pregnant women in comparison to nonpregnant women. 


         Macronutrients – 

Protein- the protein intake of pregnant women is 60g/day, which is a 14 g/day more than a nonpregnant woman. In other words, this increase reflects a change of 1.1 g of protein /kg of body weight/ day from 0.8g of protein/kg/ day for nonpregnant women. 

Carbohydrate – the carbohydrate should wave off 45-64% of the daily calorie requirement and pregnant women should take this carbohydrate in 6 to 9 servings of whole-grains daily. 

Fat- the fat should contribute 20% to 35% of daily calories to pregnant women this data is similar to nonpregnant. 


Pregnant women required 200-800µg of folic acid daily to fulfil the physical requirements of the body. The folic acid synthetic form of naturally occurring B vitamin, and folate. The natural source of folate is a dark green leafy vegetable, nuts, and citrus food. Women with a history of a neural tube defect in a prior pregnancy should take a higher dose of 4mg of folic acid daily for the next pregnancy. The iron requirement for pregnant women is twice the amount of iron required by nonpregnant women. Garbh Sanskar standard prenatal iron requirement for pregnant woman is 27mg. vitamin C supplements help with iron absorption whereas tea and milk can inhibit iron absorption in the body. Vitamin D is manufactured by the skin when it exposes to the Sun. it is a fat-soluble vitamin and found in milk and juices. Vitamin D helps in calcium absorption. The deficiencies of vitamin D in pregnancy can high risk of rickets and fractures. The optimal level of vitamin D required in pregnancy has not been established yet. Vitamin A is essential for the proliferation and differentiation of cells and their development into the heart, spine, eyes, ears. The maximum supplement of vitamin A is 8000 IU/day. The excessive doses of vitamin A can cause cardiac and facial birth defects in the newborn baby. 

Daily dietary allowance for pregnant women. 

Nutrient  Non-pregnant  Pregnant women
Vitamin A (µg/d) 700 1300
Vitamin D (µg/d) 5 15
Vitamin E (µg/d) 15 15
Vitamin K(µg/d) 90 90
Folate (µg/d) 400 600
Niacin mg/d 14 18
Riboflavin mg/d 1.1 1.4
Thiamin (mg/d) 1.1 1.4
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 1.3 1.9
Vitamin B12 (µg/d) 2.4 2.6
Vitamin C (mg/d) 2.4 2.6
Calcium (mg/d) 1,000 1,000
Iron (mg/d) 18 27
Phosphorus (mg/d) 700 700
Selenium (µg/d) 55 60
Zinc (mg/d) 8 11

Typical composition of micronutrient in a prenatal vitamin 

Component  Amount 
Vitamin A 4000 IU as beta carotene 
Vitamin D3 400 IU as cholecalciferol 
Vitamin E 11 IU take it as dl- alpha tocopheryl acetate 
Folic acid  800µg
Niacin  18 mg as niacinamide 
Riboflavin  1.7 mg as thiamin mononitrate 
Thiamin  1.5 mg
Vitamin B6 2.6 mg as pyridoxine hydrochloride 
Vitamin B12 4µg as cyanocobalamin 
Vitamin C 100mg as ascorbic acid 
Calcium  150mg as calcium carbonate 
Iron  27 mg as ferrous fumarate 
Zinc  25mg as zinc oxide 

Table: Diagnostic testing along with prophylaxis and treatment of micro and macronutrient deficiencies in pregnancies after bariatric surgery.

Component  Diagnostic testing(serum) Prophylaxis Treatment if deficient
Protein Serum albumin and prealbumin 60g protein/day Protein supplements
Vitamin A Vitamin A, if clinically indicated 4000 IU/day in prenatal vitamin Vitamin A not to exceed 8000 IU/day
Vitamin D 25-hydroxy vitamin D, if clinically indicated 400-800 IU/day in prenatal vitamin Calcitriol (vitamin D)1000 IU/day
Vitamin K Vitamin K1, if clinically indicated Not routinely given Vitamin K1 1 mg/day Consult with hematologist
Folic acid Complete blood count, red blood cell folate 600-800 μg/day in prenatal vitamin Folic acid 1000μg/day
Vitamin B12 Complete blood cell count, Vitamin B12 4 μg/day in prenatal vitamin Oral vitamin B12 350μg/day orIntramuscular1000 μg/month Consult with hematologist
Calcium Total and ionized calcium 250 mg/day in prenatal vitamin Calcium citrate 1000mg/day with Vitamin D
Iron Complete blood count, iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity 30 mg/day in prenatal vitamin Ferrous sulfate 325 mg twice-three times/day with vitamin C

How Garbh Sanskar helps you to deal with pregnancy mood swings?

The news of being pregnant, the course of pregnancy and childbirth is unquestionably important moments in the life of a woman. Generally, many women around the world look forward to having her children and experience the pregnancy positively but one cannot deny that certain women aren’t happy with the news of being pregnant. There could be any possible reason behind it like psychological dispositions, life conditions and many more which triggers the negative emotion in pregnant women. These emotions substantially influence the behaviour of a pregnant woman during pregnancy and after delivery.

The factors which are responsible for mood swings are:

  • Emotions and mood.
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Neuroticism
  • Objective and subjective health status
  • Social relationships
  • Relationship with partner
  • Economic status
  • Woman’s previous maternal experience like miscarriage and birth defects
  • Skills related to pregnancy, maternity, and childbirth (labour).
  • The motive of pregnancy planned or unplanned also plays a specific role in a mood swing.

If we analyze all this data we can conclude that there are specifically three important factors which play an underlying role in mood swings during the pregnancy. Among them, the first factor is a concern with the personality of the women concerned with the ability to cope up with the burden, secondly her emotional stability and anxiety and at last the subjective and objective health status of the women and the child during pregnancy. During Garbh Sanskar one learns how to fight with emotional changes and how to bring emotional stability and a stable subject and object health during pregnancy. Garbh Sanskar teaching includes the technique which helps the pregnant woman to cope with the origin of these various factors. The following reasons are listed with the origin of the source of these factors and the Garbh Sanskar remedy to fight with them.

Origin of source Garbh Sanskar technique to fight with them:

Nausea: By herbal treatment

Fear of childbearing: By counselling

Social limitation: By well-planned pregnancy

The mood state can amplify the effects of other factors responsible for mood swings, therefore, a positive environment is very important for pregnant women like support while giving birth, optimistic personality helps to repress the inconveniences. One should pay proper attention to the health problems during pregnancy, sometimes the emotional instability is caused by physical issues which result in worries about the baby.

The women’s perception and expression, in general, play a very important role in a fight off the causes of mood swings. The maternal plans and skills of women influence mood swings during pregnancy. A woman’s previous pregnancies provide a vivid experience that is imprinted in the mother’s memory. The multiparous ( women with the experience of childbirth) are always better in handling mood swings in comparison to nulliparous ( women which no previous experience of childbirth) therefore in Garbh sanskar, it is recommended to stay in the joint family during pregnancy the experience of midwives helps the nulliparous to handle the pregnancy. The social and material life conditions of pregnant women are the third root cause of mood swings. It includes close relationships with society and necessary social support promising satisfactory and safe course of pregnancy and future maternity.

Along with this material or economic status of pregnant women and their families, the relationship with a partner should first be taken into account. The partner’s support is important for effective coping with stressful events. Conflict with the partner, fear of partner leaving pregnant women or aggressive behaviours towards pregnant women increase her insecurity regarding pregnancy and after birth. Family gathering as indicated in Garbh Sanskar the spiritual rituals helps a lot to fight off these emotions.

The mood swings and the proper remedy for its treatment are related to age and the health of women, her psychological preparedness for maternity, partnership status and social relationships and some material conditions they all together affect it.

Divya Garbh Sanskar: Knowledge, Attitude and Practice

A balanced and healthy nutritional status maintained by pregnant women during pregnancy help to grow strong, healthy placenta, which is the key factor for the birth weight and future health of the baby in adult life. Similarly, healthy positive emotions like joy, love, gratitude and positive thought by the parent ( mother, father and other family members) play a key role in the growth of the unborn child in the womb of the mother, Whereas negative thoughts, depression, anxiety, and stress injures the unborn baby. 

Hence the concept of Sanskar which means good thought is important and imparted right from the prenatal stage that is when the baby is in the womb of the mother. 

Many kinds of research have been conducted to observe the effect of the surrounding, psychological state of the mother, physical health and other various factors on the fetus.  The results of these researches are well documented and reveals that the activity of the mother during the time pregnancy ( gestational age) in the form of prayer (good rational thoughts), Manhshakti (positive emotion), words with baby(talk) or expressing physical touch and feel is not only recognized by the fetus but it also has positive effects on physical and mental health of the baby. Thus, in Divya garbh Sanskar program students ( pregnant women, to be mother, parents ) are being taught how to bring positivity in the unborn baby and performing such mental and physical activity to create a positive environment which results in obtaining a healthy growth of the baby. The Garbh sanskar is purely an intentional activity that helps to determine and develop an intuitive connection with the baby in the womb. It and helps and increases positive responses from baby by communication and bonding with baby, while Learning with Divya Garbh Sanskar you can transmit positive thoughts, love and emotions to the fetus, so that the unborn baby becomes happier, the likelihood of calm, and healthier baby after birth.

Thus Divya Garbh sanskar provides and teaches a scientific way of editing the baby in the womb by educating mothers and fathers( parents) to involve them with positive emotions and share it with the baby during the pregnancy. Divya Garbhsanskar brings awareness to the sensation, which pregnant women, to be mother and parents imbibe through her/their five senses, which can provide a positive environment for the baby to thrive. The roots of Garbh sanskar can be traced back to the VEDIC KAAL, Garbhsanskar was the key to building bring the personality of positivity like Vivekanand, Lord Buddha, Prahlad, Abhimanyu from Mahabharata. It all happens by the positive thoughts of their mother’s prayer, proper diet, and well-maintained lifestyle during pregnancy. One can learn all this from the organization “Divya Garbh Sanskar”. The Divya Garbhsanskar is working towards the goal of molding the future generation through the practice of Garbh sanskar. 

Divya Garbh Sanskar follows the methods of Garbh sanskar that are explained in Charaka Kriyas and also has been accepted by science today under the observation of experienced Team of Doctors. As a known fact this is a time of modernization, the modern society is losing their knowledge and backing of cultural customs with time. There was a time when this knowledge and cultural practice were the strong bonds in the building of our society. Divya Garbh Sanskar fills the gap and build a bridge between ancient knowledge and modern generation with the base of well-performed scientific study, towards the  loss of awareness and practice of Garbh sanskar, due to the change in the educational system , employment of parents and modern electronic gadgets which does not leave any time to pay attention to the old practice of garbh sanskar.

One of the major factors is a nuclear family, due to which there has been a lack of communication and exchanges of thought practices among senior family members, which results in loss of old practices and customs. Even though some are aware but they cannot practice due to lack of either time or proper direction. Here in Divya Garbh Sanskar, we provide proper direction and education for molding the baby you desire. 

Why Moringa Leaves are helpful in garbh sanskar?

Moringa oleifera Lam is a very useful plant. Moringa leaf powder is one of the best vegetarian sources to fight against malnutrition. Moringa is referred to as superfood and can offer an abundance of nutrients that provide health benefits which specifically meet the needs for lactating women, soon to be the mother or a pregnant woman. Moringa leaves can be called a baby-making machine as it helps to enhance fertility in women and provide all the essential nutrients required for a healthy garbh sanskar. In lactating women, moringa leaves help in not only stimulating the production of breast milk but also enhance the production of breast milk. According to a scientific study it has been reported that women who consume moringa leaves after pregnancy produces twice the milk in comparison to the women who don’t consume moringa leaves. Find burniva product too which also helps with your wellness. 

       A study has been performed by health workers from the Church World Service and it is found that moringa leaves are highly nutritious means to cure and prevent malnutrition in lactating women, children, and pregnant women in comparison to expensive sources like vegetable oil, whole milk powder, sugar, and even peanut butter. In the case of infants, it took around 10 days to see improvement with moringa leaves while with other conventional sources it takes months to recover. Moringa leaves contain all amino acids. There are over 46 Antioxidants & 36 Anti-Inflammatory compounds present in the moringa plant leaves.

       Moringa Leaves are full of strength providing essential disease-preventing nutrients and helpful in garbh sanskar. It includes:

  • Vitamin A, – it helps in shielding against eye disease, skin disease, heart ailments, diarrhoea, and many other diseases in pregnant women and infants.
  • Vitamin C, – it is very necessary for pregnant women it helps in fighting a bulk of illnesses including colds and flu.
  • Calcium, – moringa fulfils the requirement of calcium it helps to build strong bones and teeth and helps prevent osteoporosis in pregnant women and infants.
  • Potassium, – it is mandatory in many biochemical reactions of the human body like glycogenesis, keeping the blood pressure normal and essential for the functioning of the brain and nerves for pregnant women it is a valuable gift from moringa leaves.
  • Proteins, – moringa leaves keep the healthy protein level in pregnant women.
  • Iron – moringa leaves are a rich source of iron. If women consume moringa leaves she doesn’t need an alternative source of iron in pregnancy.

  Table: nutrient value present in 100gm of moringa Leaves. 

Sr. No Nutrients Leaves
1. Edible portion (%) 83
2. Moisture (%) 86.9
3. Protein(g) 2.5
4. Fat (g) 0.1
5. Carbohydrate (g) 3.7
6. Minerals (g) 2.0
7. Fibre (g) 4.8
8. Calories 26
9. Calcium (mg) 30
10. Magnesium (mg) 24
11. Oxalic acid (mg) 101
12. Phosphorus (mg) 110
13. Potassium (mg) 259
14. Copper (mg/g) 3.1
15. Iron (mg) 5.3
16. Sulphur (mg) 137
17. VitaminA (I.U) 184
18. Choline (mg) 423
19. Thiamine (mg) 0.05
20. Riboflavin (mg) 0.07
21. Nicotinic acid (mg) 0.2
22. Vitamin C (mg) 120

Phytochemistry of moringa Leaves

Phytochemicals present in moringa are, rich in medicinal value. On examination of the photochemical present in moringa species, it is found that it contains a range of fairly unique secondary metabolites. It contains simple sugar called rhamnose, glucosinolates, and isothiocyanates. The anticancer and hypotensive compound present in moringa are niazimicin, pterygospermin, 4-(4′-O-acetyl-L-rhamnopyranosyl oxy) benzyl isothiocy-anate, benzyl isothiocyanate, 4-(a- L-rhamnopyranosyl tosyloxy) benzyl isothiocy-anate, and 4-(a-L-rhamnopyranosyl pyranosyl oxy) benzyl glucosinolate. Along with these unique compounds moringa is also a rich source of a-carotene or pro-vitamin A), minerals and other vitamins.

Note: it is recommended to pregnant women not consume moringa bark, roots and flowers as it consists of phytochemicals that have contracting activity in the body. It may lead to miscarriage. Please consult a doctor before taking the whole moringa as a food source while in pregnancy. In this article only the health benefits of moringa leaves in garbh sanskar has been discussed.

Diet of pregnant women a view of garbh sanskar

Diet of pregnant women: from Garbh Sanskar prospective 

Pregnancy brings many changes in women’s body. The formation of a baby in the womb is responsible for the decrease of nutrient in the mother’s blood because the nutrient as been taken from non-other then mother’s own body. Thus if proper diet is not been followed it will cause weakness in mothers body and so the fetus. To ensure the proper growth and development of the baby in the womb it is mandatory to consume a complete and healthy diet. One has to make sure the diet of pregnant women is consist of all the required nutrients and energy sources which are required by fetus and mother as well therefore in garbh Sanskar there was the practice of teaching about proper diet to pregnant women so that they prevent dehydration and malnutrition.

  The first trimester of pregnancy brings nausea and vomiting to many women, which interfere with their proper diet therefore in garbh Sanskar counselling of women they had been taught to take cold and sweet liquid diet and milk to prevent any dehydration and malnutrition. In Ayurveda, the herbs and food are divided according to their nature, in the first trimester the women pregnancy they are suggested to take food under the category of madhura. The food comes under this category are anabolic and helps to maintain the health of baby and mother. 

Fourth month onwards in pregnancy muscular tissue of baby starts to form thus the baby required more protein. The women’s of ancient India were aware of this fact because of the teachings of garbh Sanskar, therefore there was practice and still recommended to have protein diet by the fourth month. The women’s are suggested to have pulses, sprouts and curd and food with reach source of protein. By the end of 6th month, most of the women experience the edema of feet and other complication related to the accumulation of water that’s why it been practice to give herb Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris). This Ayurvedic herb prevent water accumulation and helps in the treatment of edema 

It is a practice in garbh Sanskar to give the herbs of Vidarigandhadi group by mixing them in a suitable solvent like milk and better according to their character and nature. It helps to prevent emaciation and suppress kapha and pitta. These herbs are diuretic and anabolic and their regular use in the third trimester helps in  maintain the health of mother and baby. It has been observed that most of the women suffer from constipation in late pregnancy because of progesterone and the pressure of grown uterus over the bowels. By 8th month therefore they are recommended to use enema it will not only relieve this constipation but also help in governing myometrium to regulate their function at the time of labour. 

Dietary regimen for pregnant women according to Ayurvedic literature of acharya Charak, and Kashyap.

1st month 

Sweet liquid diet 
Honey with herbs.( the details of herbs used can be obtained by registering in the course of garbh Sanskar)

2nd month 

Milk with honey 
Milk with honey and kakoli. 

3rd month 

Milk with butter of A2 type milk and honey
Milk with herbs. ( the details of herbs used can be obtained by registering in the course of garbh Sanskar)

 4th month 

Milk with herbs.( the details of herbs used can be obtained by registering in the course of garbh Sanskar)
Curd with Satvik cereals 
Medicated butter of A2 type milk. .( the details of medicines used can be obtained by registering in the course of garbh Sanskar)

5th month 

Butter of A2 type milk prepared with solution of herbs extract and milk. .( the procedure to make and details of herbs used can be obtained by registering in the course of garbh Sanskar)
Cooked frumenty, porridge with butter 
Sweet curd 

6th month 

Milk prepared with herbs.( the details of herbs used can be obtained by registering in the course of garbh Sanskar)
Honey with curd 
Barley with butter of A2 type milk and herbs 

7th month 

Diet of 6th month 
Butter of A2 type milk prepared with Prathakparnyadi gana

Diet of 8th month

Milk with rice and butter of A2 type milk 
Barley-gruel with milk

9th month 

Oil prepared with herbs. ( the procedure and details of herbs used can be obtained by registering in the course of garbh Sanskar)
Butter with barley- gruel till delivery 
Different varieties of cereals.

Role of placental Hormones in pregnancy

Garbh Sanskar1

In pregnancy, the placenta plays a very important role in the formation of hormones. These hormones are human chorionic gonadotropin, estrogen, progesterone, and human chorionic somatomammotropin. The first three hormones are very important for a normal pregnancy. It is an amazing fact that the secretion of all these hormones along with the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland and others strongly relates the ancient Indian science of Garbh Sanskar. In India, every newlywed couple were used to subject to the course of Garbh sanskar. This the course is consisting of Ayurveda along with the divine Mantra and Yagya together all three can regulate the secretion of these hormones and their functioning. The recent studies in pharmacology also suggested that the regulation of these hormones can be managed using Herbal medicines. Thus Garbh Sanskar is the key factor for the proper and excellent development of the fetus in the womb.

1. Human chorionic gonadotropin

As we are aware of the fact that menstruation cycle occurs in nonpregnant women about 14 days after ovulation. During menstruation, most of the endometrium wall of the uterus sloughs away from the uterine wall and is expelled to the exterior. If this happens to a pregnant woman then the implantation along with the endometrium wall will be expelled to the exterior, which results in termination of the pregnancy. To prevent the miscarriage in a pregnant woman this human chorionic gonadotropin hormone is secreted by the newly developing embryonic tissue, with the development of trophoblast cells from the early fertilized ovum. The secretion of this hormone can be measured in blood after 8 to 9 days after ovulation; the rate of secretion becomes rapidly high at

10 to 12 weeks after fertilization then further reduced to a lower value by 16 to 20 weeks.

Characterization of human gonadotropin hormone – it is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of about 39000.

Function –

• Persistence of the Corpus Leteum and prevents menstruation.
• It causes corpus Leteum to secrete more quantity of sex hormone which is progesterone and estrogens for the next few months.
• Promotes the growth of endometrium cell line so that a large quantity of food can be stored for the fetus.
• Under the influence of this hormone mother’s ovary grow about twice of its initial size.
• To involutes the corpus Leteum after the 13th to 17th week of pregnancy.

Role of human chorionic gonadotropin on the fetus

This hormone also exerts an interstitial cell stimulation effect which results in the production of testosterone in the male fetus. This small secretion of testosterone during gestation is what causes the fetus to grow to make sex organ instead of female organs.

2. Estrogen and progesterone

The placenta secretes both the estrogen and progesterone from syncytial trophoblast cells of the placenta. The secretion of estrogen is increased by 30 times from normal mother’s estrogen secretion at the end of the pregnancy. The estrogen secreted by the placenta is different from what secrets from the ovary. The estrogen in the placenta is formed by androgenic steroid compounds known as dehydroepiandrosterone and 16-hydroxy dehydroepiandrosterone.

Functions of estrogen and progesterone

• The main function of these hormones is towards the reproductive organ of the mother.
• Estrogen is responsible for the enlargement of the mother’s uterus, breast, and lactation.
• This hormone plays an important role in the enlargement of the mother’s female external genitalia.
• Estrogen relaxes the pelvic ligaments of the mother to allow easy passage to the fetus to go through the birth canal.
• Progesterone plays an important role in early nutrition of embryo by the development of the decidual cells.
• The major function of progesterone is to reduce the contractibility of the uterus to prevent spontaneous abortion.
• Estrogen and progesterone contribute to the reproduction of embryonic cells of the fetus.

3. Human chorionic somatomammotropin

This is the most recent discovered hormone of pregnancy. The human chorionic somatomammotropin is the highest secreted hormone by the placenta during the pregnancy period but its accurate functions are not known yet. The secretion of this hormone starts in the 5th week.

The function of human chorionic somatomammotropin

• It decreases the insulin sensitivity and glucose utilization in the mother and makes it available to the fetus for its proper growth.
• The structure of this hormone resembles the growth hormone but human chorionic somatomammotropin requires 100 times more for growth in comparison to the growth hormone.
• Provides the alternative source of energy by releasing free fatty acids from stored fatty acid in the mother’s body.

Breastfeeding– An Ayurveda Perceptive with the modern science supporting it.

It is widely accepted that breastfeeding is the best nutrition an infant can have. Breast milk is an optimal food source for the infant in the almost first year of their birth. One of the aspects of garbh sanskar is Ayurveda, where the mother is properly taught about the physiology of pregnancy and how to opt the best result using Ayurvedic herbs. As we know lactation is the part of pregnancy where mothers body prepares itself for feeding the newborn. In the course of this preparation, the mother’s body goes through some changes. In this article, you will learn about these changes from the perceptive of Ayurveda.

Formation of breast milk (stanya)

Acharya of Ayurveda rishi Kashyapa mentioned that the stanya or breast milk is formed by rasa. This rasa is prashad bhag or bodily fluids, which include blood along with its all component of pregnant women. Now if look at the modern science the hormone estrogen and progesterone is secretion increases in a pregnant woman but it has the adverse effect of lactation it inhibits the actual secretion of milk. Conversely, the hormone prolactin has exactly the opposite effect on milk secretion by promoting it. Thus it can be concluded that in ancient India where garbh sanskar
was a regular practice they were aware of the fact that certain active compounds (hormones) which they called rasa and reflexes were responsible for the breast milk production and its secretion. In garbh sanskar, the lessons for the couple were not only for the duration of pregnancy but also for after the birth of the baby. As per the research is done so far each time the mother nurses the baby, nervous signals from nipples to the hypothalamus causes a 10 to 20 fold surges in prolactin secretion that lasted for 1 hour. In garbh sanskar the mother was taught how to feed the baby, the proper posture, food to eat during lactation, the psychological state of mind, the surrounding of baby and mother, which further enhance the quality and quantity of milk. They were even taught how to communicate with the baby so that baby’s body can absorb complete nutrition from the milk, probably that’s the reason our ancestors were physically and mentally more stable and strong.

Causes of milk ejection ( stanya Pravriti) and cessation (Apravriti).

Acharya Sushruta has clearly stated the factors which result in Stanya Pravriti; they are sight or touch of the child but affection for the child is most important. Scientific study has already proven that when the baby sucks at nipples it creates a reflex which stimulates the hypothalamus and result in milk ejection ( stanya Pravriti). Many psychogenic factors can inhibit the milk ejection to counter react that there is a practice of meditation in garbh sanskar. Thinking lovingly about your baby, the sound of baby, the sight of the baby these images relax the mother and enhance the level of Oxytocin which promotes the “milk ejection” in lactating women. The hindering factors of milk ejection are worried, stress, pain, and doubt therefore in garbh sanskar class there were lessons for whole family so that the new mother doesn’t counter with such emotions.

The merits of Breasts (Stana-Sampat)

According to Ayurveda acharyas, the breast ( stanya) which is comfortable for sucking is stated to be the perfect one. Acharya Charaka describes

The breast which is comfortable for sucking is said to be the merits of the breast ( stana- Sampat) which is not ATILAMBA, ATIKRISHNA, ATIURDHAWA and have appropriate nipple which is easy and approachable for baby to suck milk. If we talk about the abnormalities of the breast then it has been explained in detail by Acharya Sushruta. According to Acharya Sushruta due to feeding abnormal or imperfect breast as LAMBASTANA, URDHWA STANAmakes the child KARALA, URDHWASKSHA means upward-looking, if the baby has to look upward and cover the face and nose while feeding it may result in the death of the baby. Breast size has nothing to do with it but the way you feed your baby is that you have to consider. Therefore in garbh sanskar, proper posture for feeding is being taught to the new mother.

Breastfeeding very important for the infant as the mental and physical development
of the baby depends on it.

The response of the mother’s body to pregnancy

There is an ancient saying that a lady is reborn when a mother becomes. This rebirth brings changes in the female body as well. Among many apparent changes caused by the reaction of hormonal changes in the mother’s body or by the fetus is the enlargement of many sexual organs. For instance, the uterus of pregnant women increases from 50 gm to 1100 gm. Breasts become double in size, and at the same time vagina enlarges and the introituses open more widely. Apart from these specific changes hormones causes the marked changes in the body of mother by bringing changes in her appearance like edema, acne and acromegalic features. 

Weight gain in pregnancy –

The average weight gain during the pregnancy is up to 35 pounds and out it, most of this weight is gained in the last two trimesters. In this 35 pound, 8 pounds belong to the fetus and 4 pounds is of amniotic fluid, fetal membranes, and placenta. The increase in uterus size causes a change of 3 pounds in weight and enlargement of breast further enhance 2 pounds in this calculation. Still, the average weight increase of 8 to 18 pounds is because of extra fluid in the blood which contributes 5 pounds along with 3 to 13 pounds due to fat accumulation. During pregnancy, a woman often feels desire for food which is resulted from the cause of removal of food from the mother’s blood. If one doesn’t follow the prenatal diet the average weight gain can result into increase in 75 pounds. 

Metabolism during pregnancy –

The basal metabolism of pregnant women increased by 15 % in the latter half of the pregnancy. This is due to the effect of increased secretion of the number of hormones like thyroxin, adrenocortical and the sex hormones. As a consequence of the increased secretion of metabolic hormones, she becomes overheated and expends more energy for muscle activity. 

Nutrition during pregnancy –

The weight of the fetus becomes doubles in the last two months of the pregnancy. Ordinarily mother does not absorb sufficient amount of nutrition from a diet like calcium, magnesium, protein, iron and other to nourish the fetus; however, this requirement is fulfilled by the stored food in the placenta and other storage depots of the mother’s body. 

If the diet of pregnant women does not contain appropriate nutrition’s it may result in much maternal deficiency especially phosphate, calcium, iron, and vitamins. It is necessary for pregnant women to have the proper amount of vitamin D as the total quantity of calcium used by the fetus is small but mothers gastrointestinal track poorly absorb the calcium without vitamin D. Know about burniva which you may want after pregnancy.  

Changes in the maternal blood circulation system 

The blood flow through the placenta and maternal cardiac output increases by 625 ml in last month. This increased blood flow along with the increased metabolism increases the mother’s cardiac output up to 40% by the 27th week of pregnancy. 

During the pregnancy, the blood volume of the mother’s body also increases by 30 % above normal shortly before term.

Changes in maternal respiration 

As a consequence of the increased metabolic rate and the size of the mother’s body the respiration rate of pregnant women also increases. The total amount of oxygen used by pregnant women shortly before the birth of the baby is increased by 20%. 

It is believed that the high level of progesterone increases the minute ventilation which is maintained by the increases respiration rate. 

Changes in maternal kidney function.

As a result of increased production of salt and water retaining hormones, more specifically the steroid hormones secreted by the placenta and adrenal cortex the reabsorptive capacity for sodium and chloride and water increased by 50 % in the maternal kidney. 

During normal pregnancy, vasodilatation occurs in pregnant women which do increase renal blood flow and glomerular filtration by 50%. The normal pregnant women accumulate 5 pounds of extra water and salt.

Factors responsible for parturition

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You might wonder what exactly happens inside your womb that baby suddenly wants to come out. Just think about it the baby was happy in your womb for 9 months then what provokes him to come outside and see the worlds with their own eyes. In this article, you will learn the various factors responsible for the parturition. Parturition is the term used to define the birth of the baby. Towards the end of the pregnancy, the womb ( uterus) becomes so excited that it develop systematic rhythmical contraction, that finally expelled the baby outside the womb. There are two major reasons for such a change in uterine behaviour:

  1.   Hormonal changes in pregnant women.
  2.   Mechanical changes in the body of pregnant women. 

Hormonal changes in pregnant women

i) Increase in the ratio of estrogen and progestogen hormone – 

As we know pregnancy begins which the change in hormonal concentration and their ratio in the body of the pregnant women. With the pregnancy, there is an increase in the secretion of estrogen and progestogen.  The role of progestogen is to reduce or better word will be inhibiting the contraction in uterine which helps to prevent the expulsion of the fetus, while estrogen, on the other hand, increases the contraction. During the time of pregnancy, they both secrete in high quantity but from the seventh month onwards the secretion of estrogen increases further while progestogen remains constant. This ratio of estrogen and progestogen further enhance at 9th month which results in contraction of uterine. 

ii) The rise in the level of Oxytocin Hormone – there are strong reasons to believe that Oxytocin is responsible for the contraction of uterine. It has been observed that during the time of labor the level of Oxytocin is increased even the receptor of Oxytocin in uterine wall increases. The experiments on an animal show that the stretching of the uterine cervix, as occurs in pregnancy can cause neurogenic reflex which increases the secretion of Oxytocin. 

iii) Effect of fetal hormones on uterine- the fetus’s pituitary gland also secretes the number of hormones which results in contraction of uterine. These hormones are Oxytocin; Cortisol along with this fetal membrane also secretes the prostaglandins in high concentration which further excite the uterine wall. 

Mechanical changes in the body of pregnant women. 

 There is a number of mechanical changes along with the hormonal changes that found to play an important role in uterine contraction. 

i) Stretch of the uterine musculature – the fetal movement in the uterine causes the intermittent stretch in the smooth muscles of uterine musculature which results in contraction of uterine. It has been observed that the twins are born 19 days earlier than a single child; however, this fact explains the importance of stretch of uterine muscles because of fetal movements. 

ii) Stretch of the cervix – the exact mechanism of the stretch of the cervix is not known yet but it has been suggested that stretching of irritation cause of stretching of cervix or movement of baby’s head stimulate the reflexes to the uterine wall which results in contraction. 

iii) Labor contraction – throughout the pregnancy duration, the body goes with systematic rhythmic contraction. This periodic contraction is known as Braxton Hicks contraction. However, this contraction becomes stronger towards the end of pregnancy. Then this contraction suddenly becomes too strong that the baby is forced towards the birth canal. This sudden contraction in muscles is known as labor.